Next Article in Journal
Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins
Previous Article in Journal
Probiotic Microorganisms Inhibit Epithelial Cell Internalization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 378; doi:10.3390/toxins8120378

Transcriptome Analysis to Understand the Toxicity of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Eggs

1
Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Developmental Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
2
Laboratory of Biological Engineering, College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Holger Scheib
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6831 KB, uploaded 20 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Latrodectus tredecimguttatus is a kind of highly venomous black widow spider, with toxicity coming from not only venomous glands but also other parts of its body as well as newborn spiderlings and eggs. Up to date, although L. tredecimguttatus eggs have been demonstrated to be rich in proteinaceous toxins, there is no systematic investigation on such active components at transcriptome level. In this study, we performed a high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of L. tredecimguttatus eggs with Illumina sequencing technology. As a result, 53,284 protein-coding unigenes were identified, of which 14,185 unigenes produced significant hits in the available databases, including 280 unigenes encoding proteins or peptides homologous to known proteinaceous toxins. GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the 280 unigenes showed that 375 GO terms and 18 KEGG pathways were significantly enriched. Functional analysis indicated that these unigene-coded toxins have the bioactivities to degrade tissue proteins, inhibit ion channels, block neuromuscular transmission, provoke anaphylaxis, induce apoptosis and hyperalgesia, etc. No known typical proteinaceous toxins in L. tredecimguttatus venomous glands, such as latrotoxins, were identified, suggesting that the eggs have a different toxicity mechanism from that of the venom. Our present transcriptome analysis not only helps to reveal the gene expression profile and toxicity mechanism of the L. tredecimguttatus eggs, but also provides references for the further related researches. View Full-Text
Keywords: Latrodectus tredecimguttatus; eggs; Illumina sequencing; proteinaceous toxin; transcriptome Latrodectus tredecimguttatus; eggs; Illumina sequencing; proteinaceous toxin; transcriptome
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, D.; Wang, X. Transcriptome Analysis to Understand the Toxicity of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Eggs. Toxins 2016, 8, 378.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top