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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 340; doi:10.3390/toxins8110340

Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines

1
Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas CEP 96160-000, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
2
Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Garanhuns CEP 55292-270, Pernambuco, Brazil
3
Instituto de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Pará, Castanhal CEP 68740-970, Pará, Brazil
4
Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas CEP 96010-610, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Current address: Abteilung Biotechnologie, Institut für Biochemie, Biotechnologie und Bioinformatik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Spielmannstr. 7, Braunschweig 38106, Germany.
Current address: School of Biosciences and Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harald Genth and Michel R. Popoff
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract

Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A–E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease. Vaccinations that generate neutralizing antibodies are the most common prophylactic measures that are currently in use. These vaccines consist of toxoids that are obtained from C. perfringens cultures. Recombinant vaccines offer several advantages over conventional toxoids, especially in terms of the production process. As such, they are steadily gaining ground as a promising vaccination solution. This review discusses the main strategies that are currently used to produce recombinant vaccines containing alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins of C. perfringens, as well as the potential application of these molecules as vaccines for mammalian livestock animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: clostridiosis; enterotoxaemia; gas gangrene; necrotic enteritis; veterinary vaccines; recombinant toxins clostridiosis; enterotoxaemia; gas gangrene; necrotic enteritis; veterinary vaccines; recombinant toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, M.R.A.; Moreira, G.M.S.G.; Cunha, C.E.P.; Mendonça, M.; Salvarani, F.M.; Moreira, Â.N.; Conceição, F.R. Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines. Toxins 2016, 8, 340.

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