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Toxins 2016, 8(11), 345; doi:10.3390/toxins8110345

Effect of Fusarium-Derived Metabolites on the Barrier Integrity of Differentiated Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells (IPEC-J2)

1
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, Tulln an der Donau 3430, Austria
2
Department of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna 1190, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marc Maresca and Isabelle Oswald
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

The human, animal and plant pathogen Fusarium, which contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, produces numerous secondary metabolites. An example is the thoroughly-investigated deoxynivalenol (DON), which severely impairs gastrointestinal barrier integrity. However, to date, the toxicological profile of other Fusarium-derived metabolites, such as enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, apicidin, aurofusarin, rubrofusarin, equisetin and bikaverin, are poorly characterized. Thus we examined their effects—as metabolites alone and as metabolites in combination with DON—on the intestinal barrier function of differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) over 72 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured at 24-h intervals, followed by evaluation of cell viability using neutral red (NR) assay. Enniatins A, A1, B and B1, apicidin, aurofusarin and beauvericin significantly reduced TEER. Moniliformin, equisetin, bikaverin and rubrofusarin had no effect on TEER. In the case of apicidin, aurofusarin and beauvericin, TEER reductions were further substantiated by the addition of otherwise no-effect DON concentrations. In all cases, viability was unaffected, confirming that TEER reductions were not due to compromised viability. Considering the prevalence of mycotoxin contamination and the diseases associated with intestinal barrier disruption, consumption of contaminated food or feed may have substantial health implications. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging mycotoxin; transepithelial electrical resistance; IPEC-J2; deoxynivalenol; intestinal barrier function emerging mycotoxin; transepithelial electrical resistance; IPEC-J2; deoxynivalenol; intestinal barrier function
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Springler, A.; Vrubel, G.-J.; Mayer, E.; Schatzmayr, G.; Novak, B. Effect of Fusarium-Derived Metabolites on the Barrier Integrity of Differentiated Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells (IPEC-J2). Toxins 2016, 8, 345.

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