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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3179-3209; doi:10.3390/toxins7083179

Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sokcheon Pak
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 1 August 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
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Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive, severely impacting affected patients, families and society as a whole. Increased life expectancy has made these diseases more common worldwide. Unfortunately, available drugs have insufficient therapeutic effects on many subtypes of these intractable diseases, and adverse effects hamper continued treatment. Wasp and bee venoms and their components are potential means of managing or reducing these effects and provide new alternatives for the control of neurodegenerative diseases. These venoms and their components are well-known and irrefutable sources of neuroprotectors or neuromodulators. In this respect, the present study reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of action and future prospects regarding the use of new drugs derived from wasp and bee venom in the treatment of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: neurological disease; bee venom; wasp venom; polyamine toxins; Melittin; Apamin; AvTx-7; Wasp Kinin; Mastoparan; Pompilidotoxins neurological disease; bee venom; wasp venom; polyamine toxins; Melittin; Apamin; AvTx-7; Wasp Kinin; Mastoparan; Pompilidotoxins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, J.; Monge-Fuentes, V.; Gomes, F.; Lopes, K.; Anjos, L.D.; Campos, G.; Arenas, C.; Biolchi, A.; Gonçalves, J.; Galante, P.; Campos, L.; Mortari, M. Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools. Toxins 2015, 7, 3179-3209.

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