Next Article in Journal
Pharmacological Alternatives for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders: Wasp and Bee Venoms and Their Components as New Neuroactive Tools
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection on Hepatic B Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Decreased Cholesterol Efflux Due to Downregulation of ABCG1 in Macrophages Exposed to Indoxyl Sulfate
Previous Article in Special Issue
Different Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains in Calmodulin for Activation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3167-3178; doi:10.3390/toxins7083167

Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Bacteriology Division, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shihui Liu
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Anthrax Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [387 KB, uploaded 17 August 2015]   |  


The interaction of anthrax toxin or toxin components with B. anthracis spores has been demonstrated. Germinating spores can produce significant amounts of toxin components very soon after the initiation of germination. In this review, we will summarize the work performed that has led to our understanding of toxin and spore interactions and discuss the complexities associated with these interactions View Full-Text
Keywords: anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; spores; anthrax toxins; PA; germination anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; spores; anthrax toxins; PA; germination

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cote, C.K.; Welkos, S.L. Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination. Toxins 2015, 7, 3167-3178.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top