Next Article in Journal
Influence of Honeybee Sting on Peptidome Profile in Human Serum
Previous Article in Journal
Recommended Mass Spectrometry-Based Strategies to Identify Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(5), 1779-1807; doi:10.3390/toxins7051779

First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

1
Department of Pharmacology, Veterinary School, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
2
National Reference Laboratory on Marine Biotoxins, Veterinary Centre of Thessaloniki, Ministry of Productive Reconstruction, Environment and Energy, 3A Limnou street, GR 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John P. Berry
Received: 5 March 2015 / Revised: 25 April 2015 / Accepted: 11 May 2015 / Published: 20 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1957 KB, uploaded 20 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay–Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area’s seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 μg/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006–2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 μg/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aegean Sea; emerging biotoxins; Mediterranean Sea; cultured mussels; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Prorocentrum minimum; tetrodotoxin; toxic episode; UPLC-MS/MS; venerupin shellfish toxin Aegean Sea; emerging biotoxins; Mediterranean Sea; cultured mussels; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Prorocentrum minimum; tetrodotoxin; toxic episode; UPLC-MS/MS; venerupin shellfish toxin
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vlamis, A.; Katikou, P.; Rodriguez, I.; Rey, V.; Alfonso, A.; Papazachariou, A.; Zacharaki, T.; Botana, A.M.; Botana, L.M. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. Toxins 2015, 7, 1779-1807.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top