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Toxins 2015, 7(5), 1467-1485; doi:10.3390/toxins7051467

Do the A Subunits Contribute to the Differences in the Toxicity of Shiga Toxin 1 and Shiga Toxin 2?

Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, USA
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Academic Editor: Teresa Krakauer
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 27 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation)
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Abstract

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is one of the leading causes of food-poisoning around the world. Some STEC strains produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or variants of either toxin, which are critical for the development of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Currently, there are no therapeutic treatments for HC or HUS. E. coli O157:H7 strains carrying Stx2 are more virulent and are more frequently associated with HUS, which is the most common cause of renal failure in children in the US. The basis for the increased potency of Stx2 is not fully understood. Shiga toxins belong to the AB5 family of protein toxins with an A subunit, which depurinates a universally conserved adenine residue in the α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA and five copies of the B subunit responsible for binding to cellular receptors. Recent studies showed differences in the structure, receptor binding, dependence on ribosomal proteins and pathogenicity of Stx1 and Stx2 and supported a role for the B subunit in differential toxicity. However, the current data do not rule out a potential role for the A1 subunits in the differential toxicity of Stx1 and Stx2. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding the differences in the A1 subunits of Stx1 and Stx2 and their role in defining toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: shiga toxin; ribosome inactivating protein; P-protein stalk binding; sarcin/ricin loop depurination shiga toxin; ribosome inactivating protein; P-protein stalk binding; sarcin/ricin loop depurination
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Basu, D.; Tumer, N.E. Do the A Subunits Contribute to the Differences in the Toxicity of Shiga Toxin 1 and Shiga Toxin 2? Toxins 2015, 7, 1467-1485.

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