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Toxins 2015, 7(4), 1030-1047; doi:10.3390/toxins7041030

Acute Cardiotoxicity Evaluation of the Marine Biotoxins OA, DTX-1 and YTX

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
2
Hospital Veterinario Universitario Rof Codina, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
3
Departamento de Ciencias Clínicas Veterinarias, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michio Murata
Received: 9 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [860 KB, uploaded 27 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Phycotoxins are marine toxins produced by phytoplankton that can get accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. Human intoxication episodes occur due to contaminated seafood consumption. Okadaic acid (OA) and dynophysistoxins (DTXs) are phycotoxins responsible for a severe gastrointestinal syndrome called diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Yessotoxins (YTXs) are marine toxins initially included in the DSP class but currently classified as a separated group. Food safety authorities from several countries have regulated the content of DSPs and YTXs in shellfish to protect human health. In mice, OA and YTX have been associated with ultrastructural heart damage in vivo. Therefore, this study explored the potential of OA, DTX-1 and YTX to cause acute heart toxicity. Cardiotoxicity was evaluated in vitro by measuring hERG (human èter-a-go-go gene) channel activity and in vivo using electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and cardiac damage biomarkers. The results demonstrated that these toxins do not exert acute effects on hERG channel activity. Additionally, in vivo experiments showed that these compounds do not alter cardiac biomarkers and ECG in rats acutely. Despite the ultrastructural damage to the heart reported for these toxins, no acute alterations of heart function have been detected in vivo, suggesting a functional compensation in the short term. View Full-Text
Keywords: okadaic acid; dynophysistoxins; yessotoxin; cardiotoxicity; hERG; ECG; cardiac biomarkers okadaic acid; dynophysistoxins; yessotoxin; cardiotoxicity; hERG; ECG; cardiac biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreiro, S.F.; Carrera, C.; Vilariño, N.; Louzao, M.C.; Santamarina, G.; Cantalapiedra, A.G.; Botana, L.M. Acute Cardiotoxicity Evaluation of the Marine Biotoxins OA, DTX-1 and YTX. Toxins 2015, 7, 1030-1047.

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