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Toxins 2015, 7(3), 859-885; doi:10.3390/toxins7030859

Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation

1
CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal
2
Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto 4169-007, Portugal
3
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John P. Berry
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [348 KB, uploaded 16 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are complex to manage due to their intermittent nature and their severe impact on the economy and human health. The conditions which promote HAB have not yet been fully explained, though climate change and anthropogenic intervention are pointed as significant factors. The rise of water temperature, the opening of new sea canals and the introduction of ship ballast waters all contribute to the dispersion and establishment of toxin-producing invasive species that promote the settling of emergent toxins in the food-chain. Tetrodotoxin, ciguatoxin, palytoxin and cyclic imines are commonly reported in warm waters but have also caused poisoning incidents in temperate zones. There is evidence that monitoring for these toxins exclusively in bivalves is simplistic and underestimates the risk to public health, since new vectors have been reported for these toxins and as well for regulated toxins such as PSTs and DSTs. In order to avoid public health impacts, there is a need for adequate monitoring programs, a need for establishing appropriate legislation, and a need for optimizing effective methods of analysis. In this review, we will compile evidence concerning emergent marine toxins and provide data that may indicate the need to restructure the current monitoring programs of HAB. View Full-Text
Keywords: emergent toxins; monitoring; new vectors; legislation emergent toxins; monitoring; new vectors; legislation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, M.; Pratheepa, V.K.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. Emergent Toxins in North Atlantic Temperate Waters: A Challenge for Monitoring Programs and Legislation. Toxins 2015, 7, 859-885.

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