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Toxins 2015, 7(2), 274-298; doi:10.3390/toxins7020274

Pokeweed Antiviral Protein, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein: Activity, Inhibition and Prospects

1
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Department of Sciences, City University of New York, 524 West 59th Street, New York, NY 10019, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, Hunter College, City University of New York and the Graduate Center, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeffrey W. Cary
Received: 9 December 2014 / Revised: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 28 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Toxins)
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Abstract

Viruses employ an array of elaborate strategies to overcome plant defense mechanisms and must adapt to the requirements of the host translational systems. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) from Phytolacca americana is a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) and is an RNA N-glycosidase that removes specific purine residues from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of large rRNA, arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. PAP is thought to play an important role in the plant’s defense mechanism against foreign pathogens. This review focuses on the structure, function, and the relationship of PAP to other RIPs, discusses molecular aspects of PAP antiviral activity, the novel inhibition of this plant toxin by a virus counteraction—a peptide linked to the viral genome (VPg), and possible applications of RIP-conjugated immunotoxins in cancer therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: pokeweed antiviral protein; ribosome inactivating protein; virus genome-linked protein; sarcin/ricin loop; immunotoxin pokeweed antiviral protein; ribosome inactivating protein; virus genome-linked protein; sarcin/ricin loop; immunotoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Domashevskiy, A.V.; Goss, D.J. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein: Activity, Inhibition and Prospects. Toxins 2015, 7, 274-298.

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