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Toxins 2015, 7(2), 367-379; doi:10.3390/toxins7020367

Toxicity of the Anti-ribosomal Lectin Ebulin f in Lungs and Intestines in Elderly Mice

Cell Biology, Histology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and INCYL (Institute of Neurosciences of Castile and Leon), University of Valladolid, Valladolid E-47005, Spain
Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valladolid, Valladolid E-47005, Spain
CINAD (Center for Research in Nutrition, Food and Dietetics), University of Valladolid, Valladolid E-47005, Spain
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and IUFI (Institute of Industrial Pharmacy), Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid E-28040, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Holger Barth
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 19 December 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1200 KB, uploaded 2 February 2015]   |  


All parts of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) studied so far contain a ribosome-inactivating protein with lectin activity (ribosome-inactivating lectin; RIL), known as ebulin. Green fruits contain ebulin f, the toxicity of which has been studied in six-week-old mice, where it was found that the intestines were primary targets for it when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). We performed experiments to assess whether ebulin f administration to six- and 12-month-old mice would trigger higher toxicity than that displayed in six-week-old mice. In the present report, we present evidence indicating that the toxicological effects of ebulin f after its i.p. administration to elderly mice are exerted on the lungs and intestines by an increased rate of apoptosis. We hypothesize that the ebulin f apoptosis-promoting action together with the age-dependent high rate of apoptosis result in an increase in the lectin’s toxicity, leading to a higher lethality level. View Full-Text
Keywords: ebulin f; Sambucus ebulus; ribosome-inactivating proteins; elderly mice; toxicity ebulin f; Sambucus ebulus; ribosome-inactivating proteins; elderly mice; toxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garrosa, M.; Jiménez, P.; Tejero, J.; Cabrero, P.; Cordoba-Diaz, D.; Quinto, E.J.; Gayoso, M.J.; Girbés, T. Toxicity of the Anti-ribosomal Lectin Ebulin f in Lungs and Intestines in Elderly Mice. Toxins 2015, 7, 367-379.

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