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Toxins 2015, 7(12), 4852-4867; doi:10.3390/toxins7124852

Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

1
VERIFIN (Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention),Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, A. I. Virtasen aukio 1, University of Helsinki,FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, SPIEZ LABORATORY, Austrasse 1,CH-3700 Spiez, Switzerland
3
ChemStat, Aarstrasse 98, CH-3005 Bern, Switzerland
4
Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Erik Palménin aukio 1,FI-00560 Helsinki, Finland
5
Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki, Finland
6
Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Rinville, Oranmore,County Galway, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Rummel
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1723 KB, uploaded 25 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

A saxitoxin (STX) proficiency test (PT) was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox) project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses. View Full-Text
Keywords: paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; saxitoxin; proficiency test; dinoflagellate; mussel paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins; saxitoxin; proficiency test; dinoflagellate; mussel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Harju, K.; Rapinoja, M.-L.; Avondet, M.-A.; Arnold, W.; Schär, M.; Luginbühl, W.; Kremp, A.; Suikkanen, S.; Kankaanpää, H.; Burrell, S.; Söderström, M.; Vanninen, P. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies. Toxins 2015, 7, 4852-4867.

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