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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4330-4349; doi:10.3390/toxins7104330

AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination

Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological, and Translational Sciences, Microbiology and Virology Unit, University of Parma, Parma 43125, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [502 KB, uploaded 23 October 2015]   |  


Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB1 is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM1, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM1 has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM1 in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM1 content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB1 contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM1 mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; milk; biocontrol; enterosorption; biotransformation; vaccination aflatoxin; milk; biocontrol; enterosorption; biotransformation; vaccination

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Giovati, L.; Magliani, W.; Ciociola, T.; Santinoli, C.; Conti, S.; Polonelli, L. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination. Toxins 2015, 7, 4330-4349.

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