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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4294-4314; doi:10.3390/toxins7104294

Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

1
UNAM–FESC. Campus 4. Multidisciplinary Research Unit L14 (Food, Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicosis), Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
2
UNAM–FESC. Campus 4. Multidisciplinary Research Unit L9 (Toxicology and Genetics), Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
3
UANL–FMVZ. Agropecuary Sciences Campus, General Escobedo 66050, Mexico
4
Esteripharma SA de CV. Atlacomulco 50450, Mexico
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [267 KB, uploaded 23 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. View Full-Text
Keywords: maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water; detoxification maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water; detoxification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jardon-Xicotencatl, S.; Díaz-Torres, R.; Marroquín-Cardona, A.; Villarreal-Barajas, T.; Méndez-Albores, A. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water. Toxins 2015, 7, 4294-4314.

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