Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2541-2567; doi:10.3390/toxins6082541
Review

Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential

1,†email, 1,5email, 2email, 2email, 2email, 1,3,* email and 1,4,* email
Received: 4 June 2014; in revised form: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antivenom and Venom Therapeutics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Serum therapy remains the only specific treatment against envenoming, but anti-venoms are still prepared by fragmentation of polyclonal antibodies isolated from hyper-immunized horse serum. Most of these anti-venoms are considered to be efficient, but their production is tedious, and their use may be associated with adverse effects. Recombinant antibodies and smaller functional units are now emerging as credible alternatives and constitute a source of still unexploited biomolecules capable of neutralizing venoms. This review will be a walk through the technologies that have recently been applied leading to novel antibody formats with better properties in terms of homogeneity, specific activity and possible safety.
Keywords: scorpion stings; snakebite; antivenom; serum therapy; antibody; scFv; diabody; nanobody
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alvarenga, L.M.; Zahid, M.; Tommaso, A.D.; Juste, M.O.; Aubrey, N.; Billiald, P.; Muzard, J. Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential. Toxins 2014, 6, 2541-2567.

AMA Style

Alvarenga LM, Zahid M, Tommaso AD, Juste MO, Aubrey N, Billiald P, Muzard J. Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential. Toxins. 2014; 6(8):2541-2567.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alvarenga, Larissa M.; Zahid, Muhammad; Tommaso, Anne D.; Juste, Matthieu O.; Aubrey, Nicolas; Billiald, Philippe; Muzard, Julien. 2014. "Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential." Toxins 6, no. 8: 2541-2567.

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