Next Article in Journal
Engineering Venom’s Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential
Next Article in Special Issue
Uptake and Processing of the Cytolethal Distending Toxin by Mammalian Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Immunological Cross-Reactivity and Neutralisation of European Viper Venoms with the Monospecific Vipera berus Antivenom ViperaTAb
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tailored Cyclodextrin Pore Blocker Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT
Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2483-2540; doi:10.3390/toxins6082483
Review

Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery

1,2
 and
3,*
1 Physics Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA 2 Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20008, USA 3 Department of Biology, the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 June 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1816 KB, uploaded 21 August 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

To intoxicate cells, pore-forming bacterial toxins are evolved to allow for the transmembrane traffic of different substrates, ranging from small inorganic ions to cell-specific polypeptides. Recent developments in single-channel electrical recordings, X-ray crystallography, protein engineering, and computational methods have generated a large body of knowledge about the basic principles of channel-mediated molecular transport. These discoveries provide a robust framework for expansion of the described principles and methods toward use of biological nanopores in the growing field of nanobiotechnology. This article, written for a special volume on “Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins”, reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming bacterial toxins in small- and macromolecule-sensing, targeted cancer therapy, and drug delivery. We discuss the electrophysiological studies that explore molecular details of channel-facilitated protein and polymer transport across cellular membranes using both natural and foreign substrates. The review focuses on the structurally and functionally different bacterial toxins: gramicidin A of Bacillus brevis, α-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, and binary toxin of Bacillus anthracis, which have found their “second life” in a variety of developing medical and technological applications.
Keywords: gramicidin A; α-hemolysin; anthrax toxin; biosensing; stochastic sensing; ion channel; biological nanopore; protein translocation; targeted toxins; drug delivery; polymer transport gramicidin A; α-hemolysin; anthrax toxin; biosensing; stochastic sensing; ion channel; biological nanopore; protein translocation; targeted toxins; drug delivery; polymer transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Gurnev, P.A.; Nestorovich, E.M. Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery. Toxins 2014, 6, 2483-2540.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert