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Toxins 2014, 6(8), 2483-2540; doi:10.3390/toxins6082483
Review

Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery

1,2
 and 3,*
Received: 2 June 2014; in revised form: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins)
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Abstract: To intoxicate cells, pore-forming bacterial toxins are evolved to allow for the transmembrane traffic of different substrates, ranging from small inorganic ions to cell-specific polypeptides. Recent developments in single-channel electrical recordings, X-ray crystallography, protein engineering, and computational methods have generated a large body of knowledge about the basic principles of channel-mediated molecular transport. These discoveries provide a robust framework for expansion of the described principles and methods toward use of biological nanopores in the growing field of nanobiotechnology. This article, written for a special volume on “Intracellular Traffic and Transport of Bacterial Protein Toxins”, reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming bacterial toxins in small- and macromolecule-sensing, targeted cancer therapy, and drug delivery. We discuss the electrophysiological studies that explore molecular details of channel-facilitated protein and polymer transport across cellular membranes using both natural and foreign substrates. The review focuses on the structurally and functionally different bacterial toxins: gramicidin A of Bacillus brevis, α-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, and binary toxin of Bacillus anthracis, which have found their “second life” in a variety of developing medical and technological applications.
Keywords: gramicidin A; α-hemolysin; anthrax toxin; biosensing; stochastic sensing; ion channel; biological nanopore; protein translocation; targeted toxins; drug delivery; polymer transport gramicidin A; α-hemolysin; anthrax toxin; biosensing; stochastic sensing; ion channel; biological nanopore; protein translocation; targeted toxins; drug delivery; polymer transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gurnev, P.A.; Nestorovich, E.M. Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery. Toxins 2014, 6, 2483-2540.

AMA Style

Gurnev PA, Nestorovich EM. Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery. Toxins. 2014; 6(8):2483-2540.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gurnev, Philip A.; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M. 2014. "Channel-Forming Bacterial Toxins in Biosensing and Macromolecule Delivery." Toxins 6, no. 8: 2483-2540.



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