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Toxins 2014, 6(7), 1996-2007; doi:10.3390/toxins6071996

Determination of Urinary Biomarkers for Assessment of Short-Term Human Exposure to Aflatoxins in São Paulo, Brazil

1
Department of Food Engineering, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil
2
Department of Biosystems Engineering, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
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Abstract

In the present study, a longitudinal assessment was carried out to evaluate the short-term human exposure to aflatoxins in Pirassununga region, São Paulo, Brazil, by determination of urinary aflatoxins by a liquid chromatography coupled to mass sprectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. Sixteen volunteers with ages ranging from 14 to 55 years old were instructed to collect the early morning first urine four times every three months, from June 2011 to March 2012, totaling 64 samples. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was found in 39 samples (61%) at levels ranging from 0.19 to 12.7 pg·mg−1 creatinine (mean: 1.2 ± 2.0 pg·mg−1 creatinine). Residues of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and aflatoxicol were not identified in any urine sample. No significant difference was found among the AFM1 mean levels in urine samples collected in the four sampling periods. The levels of AFM1 found in urine samples indicate a low short-term exposure of the population studied to aflatoxins through the diet, although further investigations are needed to assess other long-term biomarkers of exposure to AFB1. View Full-Text
Keywords: AFM1; AFB1; exposure assessment; mass spectrometry AFM1; AFB1; exposure assessment; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jager, A.V.; Tonin, F.G.; Souto, P.C.M.C.; Privatti, R.T.; Oliveira, C.A.F. Determination of Urinary Biomarkers for Assessment of Short-Term Human Exposure to Aflatoxins in São Paulo, Brazil. Toxins 2014, 6, 1996-2007.

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