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Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1169-1176; doi:10.3390/toxins6041169
Article

Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

1
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 4
 and 1,*
1 Laboratory of Cell Ultrastructure, Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil 2 Laboratory of Entomology, Research and Study Center of Agriculture and environment Development, University of Mato Grosso State; MT 358, Km 7, Jardim Aeroporto, Tangará da Serra 78300-000, Mato Grosso, Brazil 3 Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Avenida Lourival Melo Mota, Tabuleiro do Martins, Maceió 57072-970, Alagoas, Brazil 4 Departament of Entomology, Federal University of de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
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Abstract

Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti.
Keywords: acetogenin; Annonaceae; cell death; botanical insecticides; dengue acetogenin; Annonaceae; cell death; botanical insecticides; dengue
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Costa, M.S.; Cossolin, J.F.S.; Pereira, M.J.B.; Sant'Ana, A.E.G.; Lima, M.D.; Zanuncio, J.C.; Serrão, J.E. Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Toxins 2014, 6, 1169-1176.

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