Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1155-1168; doi:10.3390/toxins6041155
Article

Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011

1email, 2email, 3email and 2,* email
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 13 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from <0.50 to 14.62 μg g−1, 15-ADON ranged from <0.10 to 7.55 μg g−1, and ZON ranged from <0.10 to 2.12 μg g−1. None of the DDGS lots contained 3-ADON or NIV. Plants in OH had the highest levels of DON overall (mean of 9.51 μg g−1), and plants in NY, MI, IN, NE, and WI had mean DON levels >1 and <4 μg g−1. Twenty six percent (36/141) of the DDGS lots contained 1.0 to 5.0 μg g−1 DON, 2% (3/141) contained >5.0 and <10.0 μg g−1 DON, and 3% (4/141) contained >10.0 μg g−1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.
Keywords: DDGS; maize; ethanol; mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khatibi, P.A.; McMaster, N.J.; Musser, R.; III, D.G.S. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011. Toxins 2014, 6, 1155-1168.

AMA Style

Khatibi PA, McMaster NJ, Musser R, III DGS. Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011. Toxins. 2014; 6(4):1155-1168.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khatibi, Piyum A.; McMaster, Nicole J.; Musser, Robert; III, David G.S. 2014. "Survey of Mycotoxins in Corn Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles from Seventy-Eight Ethanol Plants in Twelve States in the U.S. in 2011." Toxins 6, no. 4: 1155-1168.

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