Toxins 2014, 6(4), 1177-1192; doi:10.3390/toxins6041177
Article

Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models

Received: 25 November 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 26 March 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) and Zearalenone (ZEA) are widespread mycotoxins that contaminate foodstuffs simultaneously, but sufficient data regarding their mixed toxicities are lacking. This study aims to analyze the style of combined effects of OTA and ZEA on cells of their target organs. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was determined in HepG2 and KK-1 cells treated with single and combined forms of OTA and ZEA. Furthermore, we have analyzed the data using two mathematical models based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent addition (IA). By analyzing data with nonlinear regression, toxins applied singly showed classic sigmoid dose-response curves in HepG2 cells whereas in KK-1 cells hormetic responses were observed. Exposure to equieffective mixtures of OTA and ZEA showed additive effects, irrespective of different nonlinear regression models used. Our results demonstrate that IA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of OTA and ZEA. The results in ROS generation indicate a departure from additivity to antagonism or synergism at different concentrations, probably due to potential interaction during ROS production. This study shows that a risk assessment of mycotoxins should account for mixture effects, and prediction models are valuable tools for mixture assessment.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; zearalenone; combined effect; concentration addition; independent addition; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Zhang, B.; He, X.; Cheng, W.-H.; Xu, W.; Luo, Y.; Liang, R.; Luo, H.; Huang, K. Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models. Toxins 2014, 6, 1177-1192.

AMA Style

Li Y, Zhang B, He X, Cheng W-H, Xu W, Luo Y, Liang R, Luo H, Huang K. Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models. Toxins. 2014; 6(4):1177-1192.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yuzhe; Zhang, Boyang; He, Xiaoyun; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liang, Rui; Luo, Haoshu; Huang, Kunlun. 2014. "Analysis of Individual and Combined Effects of Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone on HepG2 and KK-1 Cells with Mathematical Models." Toxins 6, no. 4: 1177-1192.

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