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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3552-3567; doi:10.3390/toxins6123552

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H Induced Apoptosis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Vitro

Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Yuan Ming Yuan West Road No. 2, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Abstract

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are powerful superantigenic toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). They can cause food poisoning and toxic shock. However, their impact on bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) is still unknown. In this study, the distribution of SE genes was evaluated in 116 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitis, and the most prevalent genes were seh (36.2%), followed by sei (12.1%), seg (11.2%), ser (4.3%), sec (3.4%), sea (2.6%) and sed (1.7%). To better understand the effect of staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) on bMECs, the seh gene was cloned and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin H (rSEH) was expressed and purified as soluble protein. Bioactivity analysis showed that rSEH possessed the activity of stimulating lymphocytes proliferation. The XTT assay showed that 100 μg/mL of rSEH produced the cytotoxic effect on bMECs, and fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that a certain dose of rSEH is effective at inducing bMECs apoptosis in vitro. This indicates that SEs can directly lead to cellular apoptosis of bMECs in bovine mastitis associated with S. aureus. View Full-Text
Keywords: staphylococcal enterotoxin H; expression; bioactivity; bovine mammary gland epithelial cells; viability; apoptosis staphylococcal enterotoxin H; expression; bioactivity; bovine mammary gland epithelial cells; viability; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ali, T.; Alkasir, R.; Yin, J.; Liu, G.; Han, B. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H Induced Apoptosis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Vitro. Toxins 2014, 6, 3552-3567.

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