Next Article in Journal
Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H Induced Apoptosis of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in Vitro
Next Article in Special Issue
Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Finding of a Group IIE Phospholipase A2 Gene in a Specified Segment of Protobothrops flavoviridis Genome and Its Possible Evolutionary Relationship to Group IIA Phospholipase A2 Genes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3488-3551; doi:10.3390/toxins6123488

Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

Department of Life Sciences, the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD London, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 October 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 19 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Evolution of Venom Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2598 KB, uploaded 19 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: venoms; Remipedia; Glyceridae; Asilidae; Tabanidae; Sciomyzidae; Chilopoda; Pseudoscorpiones; Nemertea; Acanthaster venoms; Remipedia; Glyceridae; Asilidae; Tabanidae; Sciomyzidae; Chilopoda; Pseudoscorpiones; Nemertea; Acanthaster
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

von Reumont, B.M.; Campbell, L.I.; Jenner, R.A. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates. Toxins 2014, 6, 3488-3551.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top