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Venom Peptides as a Rich Source of Cav2.2 Channel Blockers
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, 4072, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2012; in revised form: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 25 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Abstract: Cav2.2 is a calcium channel subtype localized at nerve terminals, including nociceptive fibers, where it initiates neurotransmitter release. Cav2.2 is an important contributor to synaptic transmission in ascending pain pathways, and is up-regulated in the spinal cord in chronic pain states along with the auxiliary α2δ1 subunit. It is therefore not surprising that toxins that inhibit Cav2.2 are analgesic. Venomous animals, such as cone snails, spiders, snakes, assassin bugs, centipedes and scorpions are rich sources of remarkably potent and selective Cav2.2 inhibitors. However, side effects in humans currently limit their clinical use. Here we review Cav2.2 inhibitors from venoms and their potential as drug leads.
Keywords: Cav2.2; voltage-gated calcium channels; nociception; neurotransmitter; ω-conotoxins; venom peptides
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MDPI and ACS Style
Sousa, S.R.; Vetter, I.; Lewis, R.J. Venom Peptides as a Rich Source of Cav2.2 Channel Blockers. Toxins 2013, 5, 286-314.
Sousa SR, Vetter I, Lewis RJ. Venom Peptides as a Rich Source of Cav2.2 Channel Blockers. Toxins. 2013; 5(2):286-314.
Sousa, Silmara R.; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J. 2013. "Venom Peptides as a Rich Source of Cav2.2 Channel Blockers." Toxins 5, no. 2: 286-314.