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Toxins 2013, 5(2), 249-266; doi:10.3390/toxins5020249
Review

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia

 and *
Received: 10 December 2012; in revised form: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)
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Abstract: Local chemodenervation with botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections to relax abnormally contracting muscles has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment in a variety of movement disorders and other neurological and non-neurological disorders. Despite almost 30 years of therapeutic use, there are only few studies of patients treated with BoNT injections over long period of time. These published data clearly support the conclusion that BoNT not only provides safe and effective symptomatic relief of dystonia but also long-term benefit and possibly even favorably modifying the natural history of this disease. The adverse events associated with chronic, periodic exposure to BoNT injections are generally minor and self-limiting. With the chronic use of BoNT and an expanding list of therapeutic indications, there is a need to carefully examine the existing data on the long-term efficacy and safety of BoNT. In this review we will highlight some of the aspects of long-term effects of BoNT, including efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.
Keywords: long-term; efficacy; safety; botulinum toxin; dystonia long-term; efficacy; safety; botulinum toxin; dystonia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramirez-Castaneda, J.; Jankovic, J. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia. Toxins 2013, 5, 249-266.

AMA Style

Ramirez-Castaneda J, Jankovic J. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia. Toxins. 2013; 5(2):249-266.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramirez-Castaneda, Juan; Jankovic, Joseph. 2013. "Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Dystonia." Toxins 5, no. 2: 249-266.



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