Toxins 2013, 5(11), 1965-1987; doi:10.3390/toxins5111965

Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A

1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia 2 Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska Cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2013; in revised form: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [304 KB, uploaded 1 November 2013 13:39 CET]
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.
Keywords: mycotoxin interactions; chronic renal diseases; genotoxicity; carcinogenicity

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Klarić, M.Š.; Rašić, D.; Peraica, M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2013, 5, 1965-1987.

AMA Style

Klarić MŠ, Rašić D, Peraica M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):1965-1987.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klarić, Maja Š.; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja. 2013. "Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A." Toxins 5, no. 11: 1965-1987.

Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert