Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A
AbstractOchratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.
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Klarić, M.Š.; Rašić, D.; Peraica, M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2013, 5, 1965-1987.
Klarić MŠ, Rašić D, Peraica M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):1965-1987.Chicago/Turabian Style
Klarić, Maja Š.; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja. 2013. "Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A." Toxins 5, no. 11: 1965-1987.