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Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Schrottova 39, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska Cesta 2, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2013; in revised form: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 28 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with carcinogenic properties. Its presence was detected in various foodstuffs all over the world but with significantly higher frequency and concentrations in areas with endemic nephropathy (EN). Even though food is often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin, earlier studies focused on the occurrence and toxicology of only OTA. Only a limited number of surveys showed that OTA co-occurs in food with mycotoxins (citrinin-CIT, penicilic acid, fumonisin B1-FB1, aflatoxins-AF) which exert nephrotoxic, carcinogenic or carcinogen-promoting activity. This review summarises the findings on OTA and its co-occurrence with the mentioned mycotoxins in food as well as experimental data on their combined toxicity. Most of the tested mycotoxin mixtures involving OTA produced additive or synergistic effects in experimental models suggesting that these combinations represent a significant health hazard. Special attention should be given to mixtures that include carcinogenic and cancer-promoting mycotoxins.
Keywords: mycotoxin interactions; chronic renal diseases; genotoxicity; carcinogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Klarić, M.Š.; Rašić, D.; Peraica, M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2013, 5, 1965-1987.
Klarić MŠ, Rašić D, Peraica M. Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):1965-1987.
Klarić, Maja Š.; Rašić, Dubravka; Peraica, Maja. 2013. "Deleterious Effects of Mycotoxin Combinations Involving Ochratoxin A." Toxins 5, no. 11: 1965-1987.