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Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation
Research Division for Life Science, Kumamoto Health Science University, 325 Izumi-machi, Kitaku, Kumamoto 861-5598, Japan
Research Division for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Corporation, JuryoGroup, Kumamoto Kinoh Hospital, 6-8-1 Yamamuro, Kitaku, Kumamoto 860-8518, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012; in revised form: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Abstract: The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.
Keywords: puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Anraku, K.; Nonaka, K.; Yamaga, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Shin, M.-C.; Wakita, M.; Hamamoto, A.; Akaike, N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins 2013, 5, 193-202.
Anraku K, Nonaka K, Yamaga T, Yamamoto T, Shin M-C, Wakita M, Hamamoto A, Akaike N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins. 2013; 5(1):193-202.
Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio. 2013. "Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation." Toxins 5, no. 1: 193-202.