Toxins 2013, 5(1), 193-202; doi:10.3390/toxins5010193
Article

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

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Received: 12 December 2012; in revised form: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins from Aquatic Organisms)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.
Keywords: puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current
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MDPI and ACS Style

Anraku, K.; Nonaka, K.; Yamaga, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Shin, M.-C.; Wakita, M.; Hamamoto, A.; Akaike, N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins 2013, 5, 193-202.

AMA Style

Anraku K, Nonaka K, Yamaga T, Yamamoto T, Shin M-C, Wakita M, Hamamoto A, Akaike N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins. 2013; 5(1):193-202.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio. 2013. "Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation." Toxins 5, no. 1: 193-202.

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