Next Article in Journal
Interactions of PLA2-s from Vipera lebetina, Vipera berus berus and Naja naja oxiana Venom with Platelets, Bacterial and Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Is Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Responsible for the Toxic Effects of Okadaic Acid in Animals?
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differences in Susceptibility to Okadaic Acid, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, between Male and Female Mice
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 193-202; doi:10.3390/toxins5010193

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

1 Research Division for Life Science, Kumamoto Health Science University, 325 Izumi-machi, Kitaku, Kumamoto 861-5598, Japan 2 Research Division for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Corporation, JuryoGroup, Kumamoto Kinoh Hospital, 6-8-1 Yamamuro, Kitaku, Kumamoto 860-8518, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins from Aquatic Organisms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [480 KB, uploaded 18 January 2013]   |   Browse Figures


The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.
Keywords: puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Anraku, K.; Nonaka, K.; Yamaga, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Shin, M.-C.; Wakita, M.; Hamamoto, A.; Akaike, N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins 2013, 5, 193-202.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert