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Toxins 2012, 4(8), 605-619; doi:10.3390/toxins4080605
Article

Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

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Received: 27 June 2012; in revised form: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 13 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)
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Abstract: Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A) injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC) was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18) or normal saline (n = 18) and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05) and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05) compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.
Keywords: Botulinum Neurotoxin; spasticity treatment; muscle tone; passive muscle biomechanics Botulinum Neurotoxin; spasticity treatment; muscle tone; passive muscle biomechanics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haubruck, P.; Mannava, S.; Plate, J.F.; Callahan, M.F.; Wiggins, W.F.; Schmidmaier, G.; Tuohy, C.J.; Saul, K.R.; Smith, T.L. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model. Toxins 2012, 4, 605-619.

AMA Style

Haubruck P, Mannava S, Plate JF, Callahan MF, Wiggins WF, Schmidmaier G, Tuohy CJ, Saul KR, Smith TL. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model. Toxins. 2012; 4(8):605-619.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haubruck, Patrick; Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F.; Callahan, Michael F.; Wiggins, Walter F.; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Tuohy, Christopher J.; Saul, Katherine R.; Smith, Thomas L. 2012. "Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model." Toxins 4, no. 8: 605-619.



Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert