Next Article in Journal
Calyculin A from Discodermia Calyx Is a Dual Action Toxin that Blocks Calcium Influx and Inhibits Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases
Next Article in Special Issue
Botulinum Toxin A for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients: In Microsurgical Patients BTX Injections in Major Salivary Glands Temporarily Reduce Salivary Production and the Risk of Local Complications Related to Saliva Stagnation
Previous Article in Journal
Within-Mat Variability in Anatoxin-a and Homoanatoxin-a Production among Benthic Phormidium (Cyanobacteria) Strains
Previous Article in Special Issue
Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 913-939; doi:10.3390/toxins4100913
Review

Clinical Uses of Botulinum Neurotoxins: Current Indications, Limitations and Future Developments

Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1072 KB, 22 October 2012; original version 19 October 2012]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause flaccid paralysis by interfering with vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release in the neuronal cells. BoNTs are the most widely used therapeutic proteins. BoNT/A was approved by the U.S. FDA to treat strabismus, blepharospam, and hemificial spasm as early as 1989 and then for treatment of cervical dystonia, glabellar facial lines, axillary hyperhidrosis, chronic migraine and for cosmetic use. Due to its high efficacy, longevity of action and satisfactory safety profile, it has been used empirically in a variety of ophthalmological, gastrointestinal, urological, orthopedic, dermatological, secretory, and painful disorders. Currently available BoNT therapies are limited to neuronal indications with the requirement of periodic injections resulting in immune-resistance for some indications. Recent understanding of the structure-function relationship of BoNTs prompted the engineering of novel BoNTs to extend therapeutic interventions in non-neuronal systems and to overcome the immune-resistance issue. Much research still needs to be done to improve and extend the medical uses of BoNTs.
Keywords: Botulinum neurotoxin; clinical indications; future developments; novel applications Botulinum neurotoxin; clinical indications; future developments; novel applications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, S. Clinical Uses of Botulinum Neurotoxins: Current Indications, Limitations and Future Developments. Toxins 2012, 4, 913-939.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert