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Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins
University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders & Neurorestoration, Department of Neurology, 3450 Hull Road Gainesville, FL 32607, USA
ATIX Foundation, Avda. 11 de Septiembre 1363, office 1502, Santiago, Chile
University for Development, Av. Plaza 680, San Carlos de Apoquindo, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute, 2055 Mowry Road Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2012; in revised form: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
Abstract: Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxin’s effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and clinicians should be aware of the full range of available data involving neurotoxin subtypes A-G.
Keywords: Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins subtypes; neuro-pharmacology toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style
Peng Chen, Z.; Morris, J.G., Jr.; Rodriguez, R.L.; Shukla, A.W.; Tapia-Núñez, J.; Okun, M.S. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins 2012, 4, 1196-1222.
Peng Chen Z, Morris JG, Jr, Rodriguez RL, Shukla AW, Tapia-Núñez J, Okun MS. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1196-1222.
Peng Chen, Zhongxing; Morris, J. G., Jr.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Shukla, Aparna W.; Tapia-Núñez, John; Okun, Michael S. 2012. "Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1196-1222.