Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1196-1222; doi:10.3390/toxins4111196
Review

Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins

1,2,3email, Jr. 4email, 1email, 1email, 2email and 1,* email
Received: 6 July 2012; in revised form: 2 October 2012 / Accepted: 29 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Use of Botulinum Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications; Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings; Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxin’s effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and clinicians should be aware of the full range of available data involving neurotoxin subtypes A-G.
Keywords: Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins subtypes; neuro-pharmacology toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng Chen, Z.; Morris, J.G., Jr.; Rodriguez, R.L.; Shukla, A.W.; Tapia-Núñez, J.; Okun, M.S. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins 2012, 4, 1196-1222.

AMA Style

Peng Chen Z, Morris JG, Jr, Rodriguez RL, Shukla AW, Tapia-Núñez J, Okun MS. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1196-1222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peng Chen, Zhongxing; Morris, J. G., Jr.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Shukla, Aparna W.; Tapia-Núñez, John; Okun, Michael S. 2012. "Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1196-1222.

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