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Passive and Active Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Ricin Poisoning
Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Cancer Immunobiology Center and Department of Microbiology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
Children’s Hospital, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
Cangene Corporation, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5Y3, Canada
Cancer Immunobiology Center, Departments Of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75230, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2011; in revised form: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ricin Toxin
Abstract: Ricin toxin (RT) is derived from castor beans, produced by the plant Ricinus communis. RT and its toxic A chain (RTA) have been used therapeutically to arm ligands that target disease-causing cells. In most cases these ligands are cell-binding monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These ligand-toxin conjugates or immunotoxins (ITs) have shown success in clinical trials . Ricin is also of concern in biodefense and has been classified by the CDC as a Class B biothreat. Virtually all reports of RT poisoning have been due to ingestion of castor beans, since they grow abundantly throughout the world and are readily available. RT is easily purified and stable, and is not difficult to weaponize. RT must be considered during any “white powder” incident and there have been documented cases of its use in espionage [2,3]. The clinical syndrome resulting from ricin intoxication is dependent upon the route of exposure. Countermeasures to prevent ricin poisoning are being developed and their use will depend upon whether military or civilian populations are at risk of exposure. In this review we will discuss ricin toxin, its cellular mode of action, the clinical syndromes that occur following exposure and the development of pre- and post-exposure approaches to prevent of intoxication.
Keywords: ricin; biothreat; vaccines; antibodies
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pincus, S.H.; Smallshaw, J.E.; Song, K.; Berry, J.; Vitetta, E.S. Passive and Active Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Ricin Poisoning. Toxins 2011, 3, 1163-1184.
Pincus SH, Smallshaw JE, Song K, Berry J, Vitetta ES. Passive and Active Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Ricin Poisoning. Toxins. 2011; 3(9):1163-1184.
Pincus, Seth H.; Smallshaw, Joan E.; Song, Kejing; Berry, Jody; Vitetta, Ellen S. 2011. "Passive and Active Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Ricin Poisoning." Toxins 3, no. 9: 1163-1184.