Toxins 2011, 3(11), 1373-1392; doi:10.3390/toxins3111373

Understanding Ricin from a Defensive Viewpoint

Received: 12 August 2011; in revised form: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 4 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ricin Toxin)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The toxin ricin has long been understood to have potential for criminal activity and there has been concern that it might be used as a mass-scale weapon on a military basis for at least two decades. Currently, the focus has extended to encompass terrorist activities using ricin to disrupt every day activities on a smaller scale. Whichever scenario is considered, there are features in common which need to be understood; these include the knowledge of the toxicity from ricin poisoning by the likely routes, methods for the detection of ricin in relevant materials and approaches to making an early diagnosis of ricin poisoning, in order to take therapeutic steps to mitigate the toxicity. This article will review the current situation regarding each of these stages in our collective understanding of ricin and how to defend against its use by an aggressor.
Keywords: toxicology of ricin; inhalation; parenteral (intramuscular); ingestion; detection; antibody based tests; mass spectrometry; polymerase chain reaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Griffiths, G.D. Understanding Ricin from a Defensive Viewpoint. Toxins 2011, 3, 1373-1392.

AMA Style

Griffiths GD. Understanding Ricin from a Defensive Viewpoint. Toxins. 2011; 3(11):1373-1392.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Griffiths, Gareth D. 2011. "Understanding Ricin from a Defensive Viewpoint." Toxins 3, no. 11: 1373-1392.

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