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Toxins 2010, 2(7), 1774-1795; doi:10.3390/toxins2071774
Review

Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells

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1 Laboratoire des Interactions Muqueuses-Agents transmissibles (LIMA), UPR562, UFRs Médecine et Pharmacie, IFR Santé-STIC, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France 2 Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences, University College London, London, UK 3 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2010 / Revised: 23 June 2010 / Accepted: 28 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
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Abstract

Cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT), as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants). These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins have adjuvant properties, the B subunits of CT (CTB) and of LT (LTB) have been shown to induce antigen specific tolerance when administered mucosally with antigens in experimental models as well as, recently, in humans, making them an attractive strategy to prevent or treat autoimmune or allergic disorders. Immunomodulation is a complex process involving many cell types notably antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we focus on Treg cells and cholera-like enterotoxins and their non toxic derivates, with regard to subtype, in vivo/in vitro effects and possible role in the modulation of immune responses to coadministered antigens.
Keywords: cholera-like enterotoxins; regulatory T cells; cholera toxin; heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli; CTB; LTB cholera-like enterotoxins; regulatory T cells; cholera toxin; heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli; CTB; LTB
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Basset, C.; Thiam, F.; Di Martino, C.; Holton, J.; Clements, J.D.; Kohli, E. Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells. Toxins 2010, 2, 1774-1795.

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