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Toxins 2010, 2(7), 1612-1645; doi:10.3390/toxins2071612

AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable

Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Department of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Department of Biology, University of Redlands, 1200 East Colton Ave, P.O. Box 3080, Redlands, CA 92373, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2010 / Revised: 8 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 June 2010 / Published: 25 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [894 KB, uploaded 25 June 2010]   |  


To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterotoxins; adjuvants; AB toxins; immunomodulation; ricin; plants; vaccines enterotoxins; adjuvants; AB toxins; immunomodulation; ricin; plants; vaccines

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Odumosu, O.; Nicholas, D.; Yano, H.; Langridge, W. AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable. Toxins 2010, 2, 1612-1645.

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