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AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable
Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Department of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University, School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Department of Biology, University of Redlands, 1200 East Colton Ave, P.O. Box 3080, Redlands, CA 92373, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2010; in revised form: 8 June 2010 / Accepted: 23 June 2010 / Published: 25 June 2010
Abstract: To ensure their survival, a number of bacterial and plant species have evolved a common strategy to capture energy from other biological systems. Being imperfect pathogens, organisms synthesizing multi-subunit AB toxins are responsible for the mortality of millions of people and animals annually. Vaccination against these organisms and their toxins has proved rather ineffective in providing long-term protection from disease. In response to the debilitating effects of AB toxins on epithelial cells of the digestive mucosa, mechanisms underlying toxin immunomodulation of immune responses have become the focus of increasing experimentation. The results of these studies reveal that AB toxins may have a beneficial application as adjuvants for the enhancement of immune protection against infection and autoimmunity. Here, we examine similarities and differences in the structure and function of bacterial and plant AB toxins that underlie their toxicity and their exceptional properties as immunomodulators for stimulating immune responses against infectious disease and for immune suppression of organ-specific autoimmunity.
Keywords: enterotoxins; adjuvants; AB toxins; immunomodulation; ricin; plants; vaccines
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MDPI and ACS Style
Odumosu, O.; Nicholas, D.; Yano, H.; Langridge, W. AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable. Toxins 2010, 2, 1612-1645.
Odumosu O, Nicholas D, Yano H, Langridge W. AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable. Toxins. 2010; 2(7):1612-1645.
Odumosu, Oludare; Nicholas, Dequina; Yano, Hiroshi; Langridge, William. 2010. "AB Toxins: A Paradigm Switch from Deadly to Desirable." Toxins 2, no. 7: 1612-1645.