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Toxins 2010, 2(6), 1318-1335; doi:10.3390/toxins2061318

Shiga Toxin Is Transported into the Nucleoli of Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a Carrier-Dependent Process

GI Division, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2010 / Revised: 19 May 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
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Shiga toxin (Stx) produced by the invasive Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae1) causes gastrointestinal and kidney complications. It has been assumed that Stx is released intracellularly after enterocyte invasion by S. dysenteriae1. However, there is little information about Stx distribution inside S. dysenteriae1-infected enterocytes. Here, we use intestinal epithelial T84 cells to characterize the trafficking of Stx delivered into the cytosol, in ways that mimic aspects of S. dysenteriae1 infection. We find that cytoplasmic Stx is transported into nucleoli. Stx nucleolar movement is carrier- and energy-dependent. Stx binding to the nucleoli of normal human enterocytes in vitro supports possible roles for nucleolar trafficking in toxin-induced intestinal pathology.
Keywords: Shiga toxin; nucleolar trafficking; intestinal epithelial cells Shiga toxin; nucleolar trafficking; intestinal epithelial cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Baibakov, B.; Murtazina, R.; Elowsky, C.; Giardiello, F.M.; Kovbasnjuk, O. Shiga Toxin Is Transported into the Nucleoli of Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a Carrier-Dependent Process. Toxins 2010, 2, 1318-1335.

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