Toxins 2010, 2(4), 905-918; doi:10.3390/toxins2040905
Review

AIP56: A Novel Bacterial Apoptogenic Toxin

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Received: 31 March 2010; in revised form: 16 April 2010 / Accepted: 22 April 2010 / Published: 26 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins from Aquatic Organisms)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp) is a Gram-negative pathogen agent of an important fish septicemia. The key virulence factor of Phdp is the plasmid-encoded exotoxin AIP56, which is secreted by exponentially growing pathogenic strains. AIP56 has 520 amino acids including an N-terminal cleavable signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues, two cysteine residues and a zinc-binding region signature HEXXH that is typical of most zinc metallopeptidases. AIP56 induces in vitro and in vivo selective apoptosis of fish macrophages and neutrophils through a caspase-3 dependent mechanism that also involves caspase-8 and -9. In vivo, the AIP56-induced phagocyte apoptosis progresses to secondary necrosis with release of cytotoxic phagocyte molecules including neutrophil elastase. Fish injected with recombinant AIP56 die with a pathology similar to that seen in the natural infection.
Keywords: Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida; AIP56; AB toxin; apoptosis; secondary necrosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, M.T.; Dos Santos, N.M.S.; Do Vale, A. AIP56: A Novel Bacterial Apoptogenic Toxin. Toxins 2010, 2, 905-918.

AMA Style

Silva MT, Dos Santos NMS, Do Vale A. AIP56: A Novel Bacterial Apoptogenic Toxin. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):905-918.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Manuel T.; Dos Santos, Nuno M. S.; Do Vale, Ana. 2010. "AIP56: A Novel Bacterial Apoptogenic Toxin." Toxins 2, no. 4: 905-918.

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