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Toxins 2010, 2(3), 353-366; doi:10.3390/toxins2030353
Article

Environmental Factors and Interactions with Mycobiota of Grain and Grapes: Effects on Growth, Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin Production by Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus carbonarius

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Received: 28 January 2010; in revised form: 12 March 2010 / Accepted: 15 March 2010 / Published: 18 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mycotoxin Research)
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Abstract: Mycotoxigenic fungi colonizing food matrices are inevitably competing with a wide range of other resident fungi. The outcomes of these interactions are influenced by the prevailing environmental conditions and the competing species. We have evaluated the competitiveness of F. culmorum and A. carbonarius in the grain and grape food chain for their in vitro and in situ dominance in the presence of other fungi, and the effect that such interactions have on colony interactions, growth and deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The Index of Dominance shows that changes in water activity (aw) and temperature affect the competitiveness of F. culmorum and A. carbonarius against up to nine different fungi. Growth of both mycotoxigenic species was sometimes inhibited by the presence of other competing fungi. For example, A. niger uniseriate and biseriate species decreased growth of A. carbonarius, while Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium species stimulated growth. Similar changes were observed when F. graminearum was interacting with other grain fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Cladopsorium herbarum and Epicoccum nigrum. The impact on DON and OTA production was very different. For F. culmorum, the presence of other species often inhibited DON production over a range of environmental conditions. For A.carbonarius, on a grape–based medium, the presence of certain species resulted in a significant stimulation of OTA production. However, this was influenced by both temperature and aw level. This suggests that the final mycotoxin concentrations observed in food matrices may be due to complex interactions between species and the environmental history of the samples analyzed.
Keywords: fungal interactions; environmental factors; mycotoxins; interspecific interactions fungal interactions; environmental factors; mycotoxins; interspecific interactions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Magan, N.; Aldred, D.; Hope, R.; Mitchell, D. Environmental Factors and Interactions with Mycobiota of Grain and Grapes: Effects on Growth, Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin Production by Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus carbonarius. Toxins 2010, 2, 353-366.

AMA Style

Magan N, Aldred D, Hope R, Mitchell D. Environmental Factors and Interactions with Mycobiota of Grain and Grapes: Effects on Growth, Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin Production by Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus carbonarius. Toxins. 2010; 2(3):353-366.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Hope, Russell; Mitchell, David. 2010. "Environmental Factors and Interactions with Mycobiota of Grain and Grapes: Effects on Growth, Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin Production by Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus carbonarius." Toxins 2, no. 3: 353-366.



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