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Toxins 2010, 2(2), 283-296; doi:10.3390/toxins2020282
Article

Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1): Toxin Biology, in Vivo Applications and Therapeutic Potential

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Received: 4 February 2010 / Revised: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins)
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Abstract

CNF1 is a protein toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. It permanently activates the regulatory Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 GTPases in eukaryotic cells, by deamidation of a glutamine residue. This modification promotes new activities in cells, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation and survival. Since the Rho GTPases play a pivotal role also in several processes in vivo, the potentiality of CNF1 to act as a new pharmacological tool has been explored in experimental animals and in diverse pathological contexts. In this review, we give an update overview on the potential in vivo applications of CNF1.
Keywords: CNF1; Escherichia coli; memory; vaccine adjuvant; drug delivery agent; pain CNF1; Escherichia coli; memory; vaccine adjuvant; drug delivery agent; pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Fabbri, A.; Travaglione, S.; Fiorentini, C. Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1): Toxin Biology, in Vivo Applications and Therapeutic Potential. Toxins 2010, 2, 283-296.

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