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Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin
Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2009; in revised form: 13 January 2010 / Accepted: 27 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
Abstract: Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new AB5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. Its A subunit is a subtilase-like serine protease and cytotoxicity for eukaryotic cells is due to a highly specific, single-site cleavage of BiP/GRP78, an essential Hsp70 family chaperone located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This cleavage triggers a severe and unresolved ER stress response, ultimately triggering apoptosis. The B subunit has specificity for glycans terminating in the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Although its actual role in human disease pathogenesis is yet to be established, SubAB is lethal for mice and induces pathological features overlapping those seen in the haemolytic uraemic syndrome, a life-threatening complication of STEC infection. The toxin is also proving to be a useful tool for probing the role of BiP and ER stress in a variety of cellular functions.
Keywords: subtilase cytotoxin; AB5 toxin; BiP/GRP78; endoplasmic reticulum stress; Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli
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MDPI and ACS Style
Paton, A.W.; Paton, J.C. Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin. Toxins 2010, 2, 215-228.
Paton AW, Paton JC. Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin. Toxins. 2010; 2(2):215-228.
Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C. 2010. "Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin." Toxins 2, no. 2: 215-228.