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Toxins 2010, 2(11), 2699-2737; doi:10.3390/toxins2112699
Review

Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack

1
, 2
, 3
 and 2,*
Received: 20 October 2010; in revised form: 29 October 2010 / Accepted: 4 November 2010 / Published: 10 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Therapeutics)
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Abstract: Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are EC3.2.32.22 N-glycosidases that recognize a universally conserved stem-loop structure in 23S/25S/28S rRNA, depurinating a single adenine (A4324 in rat) and irreversibly blocking protein translation, leading finally to cell death of intoxicated mammalian cells. Ricin, the plant RIP prototype that comprises a catalytic A subunit linked to a galactose-binding lectin B subunit to allow cell surface binding and toxin entry in most mammalian cells, shows a potency in the picomolar range. The most promising way to exploit plant RIPs as weapons against cancer cells is either by designing molecules in which the toxic domains are linked to selective tumor targeting domains or directly delivered as suicide genes for cancer gene therapy. Here, we will provide a comprehensive picture of plant RIPs and discuss successful designs and features of chimeric molecules having therapeutic potential.
Keywords: ribosome-inactivating proteins; cancer immunotherapy; ITs; vascular leak syndrome; recombinant expression; fusion toxins; single chain antibody variable fragments; Pichia pastoris ribosome-inactivating proteins; cancer immunotherapy; ITs; vascular leak syndrome; recombinant expression; fusion toxins; single chain antibody variable fragments; Pichia pastoris
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Virgilio, M.; Lombardi, A.; Caliandro, R.; Fabbrini, M.S. Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack. Toxins 2010, 2, 2699-2737.

AMA Style

Virgilio M, Lombardi A, Caliandro R, Fabbrini MS. Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack. Toxins. 2010; 2(11):2699-2737.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Virgilio, Maddalena de; Lombardi, Alessio; Caliandro, Rocco; Fabbrini, Maria Serena. 2010. "Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack." Toxins 2, no. 11: 2699-2737.



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