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Toxins 2010, 2(11), 2680-2698; doi:10.3390/toxins2112680

Genetics of Dothistromin Biosynthesis of Dothistroma septosporum: An Update

1
Bio-Protection Research Centre, Institute of Molecular BioSciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
2
Department of Plant Biology & Forest Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7080, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 30 October 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 5 November 2010
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Abstract

Dothistroma needle blight is one of the most devastating fungal pine diseases worldwide. The disease is characterized by accumulation in pine needles of a red toxin, dothistromin, that is chemically related to aflatoxin (AF) and sterigmatocystin (ST). This review updates current knowledge of the genetics of dothistromin biosynthesis by the Dothistroma septosporum pathogen and highlights differences in gene organization and regulation that have been discovered between the dothistromin and AF/ST systems. Some previously reported genes are promoted or demoted as ‘dothistromin genes’ based on recent research. A new dothistromin gene, norB, is reported, and evidence of dothistromin gene homologs in other Dothideomycete fungi is presented. A hypothesis for the biological role of dothistromin is outlined. Finally, the impact that the availability of the D. septosporum genome sequence will have on dothistromin research is discussed.
Keywords: Dothideomycete; mycotoxin; gene cluster; pine needle blight; Mycosphaerella pini; aflatoxin; sterigmatocystin Dothideomycete; mycotoxin; gene cluster; pine needle blight; Mycosphaerella pini; aflatoxin; sterigmatocystin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwelm, A.; Bradshaw, R.E. Genetics of Dothistromin Biosynthesis of Dothistroma septosporum: An Update. Toxins 2010, 2, 2680-2698.

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