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Toxins 2018, 10(8), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10080314

Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium

1
Centro de Investigacións Mariñas, Xunta de Galicia, Pedras de Corón S/N, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Spain
2
Departamento de Acuicultura, Universidad Católica del Norte, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile
3
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Algas (CIDTA), Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Larrondo 1281, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts)
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Abstract

Surf clams, Mesodesma donacium, were shown to accumulate toxins from Dinophysis acuminata blooms. Only pectenotoxin 2 (PTX2) and some of its derivatives were found, and no toxins from the okadaic acid group were detected. PTX2 seems to be transformed to PTX2 seco-acid (PTX2sa), which was found in concentrations more than ten-fold those of PTX2. The seco-acid was transformed to acyl-derivatives by esterification with different fatty acids. The estimated amount of these derivatives in the mollusks was much higher than that of PTX2. Most esters were originated by even carbon chain fatty acids, but some originated by odd carbon number were also found in noticeable concentrations. Some peaks of toxin in the bivalves did not coincide with those of Dinophysis abundance, suggesting that there were large differences in toxin content per cell among the populations that developed throughout the year. The observed depuration (from the digestive gland) was fast (more than 0.2 day−1), and was faster for PTX2 than for PTX2sa, which in turn was faster than that of esters of PTX2sa. PTX2 and PTX2sa were distributed nearly equally between the digestive gland and the remaining tissues, but less than 5% of the palmytoyl-esters were found outside the digestive gland. View Full-Text
Keywords: pectenotoxins; surf clam; accumulation; biotransformation; depuration pectenotoxins; surf clam; accumulation; biotransformation; depuration
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Blanco, J.; Álvarez, G.; Rengel, J.; Díaz, R.; Mariño, C.; Martín, H.; Uribe, E. Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium. Toxins 2018, 10, 314.

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