Botulinum Toxin Induced Atrophy: An Uncharted Territory
AbstractBotulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produce local chemo-denervation by cleaving soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Botulinum neurotoxins are therapeutically indicated in several neurological disorders and have been in use for three decades. The long-term efficacy, safety, and side effects of BoNTs have been well documented in the literature. However, the development of muscle atrophy following chronic exposure to BoNTs has not received sufficient attention. Muscle atrophy is not only cosmetically distressing, but also has an impact on future injections. An extensive literature search was conducted on atrophy and mechanisms of atrophy. Five hundred and four relevant articles in the English language were reviewed. This review revealed the surprising lack of documentation of atrophy within the literature. In addition, as demonstrated in this review, the mechanisms and the clinical factors that may lead to atrophy have also been poorly studied. However, even with this limited information it is possible to indicate factors that could modify the clinical approach to botulinum toxin injections. This review highlights the need for further study of atrophy following BoNT injections. View Full-Text
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Salari, M.; Sharma, S.; Jog, M.S. Botulinum Toxin Induced Atrophy: An Uncharted Territory. Toxins 2018, 10, 313.
Salari M, Sharma S, Jog MS. Botulinum Toxin Induced Atrophy: An Uncharted Territory. Toxins. 2018; 10(8):313.Chicago/Turabian Style
Salari, Mehri; Sharma, Soumya; Jog, Mandar S. 2018. "Botulinum Toxin Induced Atrophy: An Uncharted Territory." Toxins 10, no. 8: 313.