Next Article in Journal
A Study and Review of Effects of Botulinum Toxins on Mast Cell Dependent and Independent Pruritus
Next Article in Special Issue
Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) Technology for the Monitoring of Aquatic Toxins: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Becker, B. et al. Yeast Killer Toxin K28: Biology and Unique Strategy of Host Cell Intoxication and Killing
Previous Article in Special Issue
EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040133

Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings

1
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria
2
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale F. Stagno D'Alcontres 31, I-98166 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Outreach to Prevention of Aquatic Toxin Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5054 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant, and often come into accidental contact with humans and, therefore, represent a threat for public health and safety. The venom of Scyphozoa is a complex mixture of bioactive substances—including thermolabile enzymes such as phospholipases, metalloproteinases, and, possibly, pore-forming proteins—and is only partially characterized. Scyphozoan stings may lead to local and systemic reactions via toxic and immunological mechanisms; some of these reactions may represent a medical emergency. However, the adoption of safe and efficacious first aid measures for jellyfish stings is hampered by the diffusion of folk remedies, anecdotal reports, and lack of consensus in the scientific literature. Species-specific differences may hinder the identification of treatments that work for all stings. However, rinsing the sting site with vinegar (5% acetic acid) and the application of heat (hot pack/immersion in hot water) or lidocaine appear to be substantiated by evidence. Controlled clinical trials or reliable models of envenomation are warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of these approaches and identify possible species-specific exceptions. Knowledge of the precise composition of Scyphozoa venom may open the way to molecule-oriented therapies in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scyphozoa; nematocysts; toxin; venom; sting; first aid Scyphozoa; nematocysts; toxin; venom; sting; first aid
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Remigante, A.; Costa, R.; Morabito, R.; La Spada, G.; Marino, A.; Dossena, S. Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings. Toxins 2018, 10, 133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top