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Toxins 2018, 10(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10040167

Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) Technology for the Monitoring of Aquatic Toxins: A Review

1
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR 241 EIO, P.O. box 53267, 98716 Pirae, Tahiti, French Polynesia
2
Laboratory of Toxic Microalgae, Institut Louis Malardé (ILM), UMR 241 EIO, P.O. box 30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Outreach to Prevention of Aquatic Toxin Exposure)
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Abstract

The Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology, first introduced in 2004, uses porous synthetic resins capable of passively adsorbing toxins produced by harmful microalgae or cyanobacteria and dissolved in the water. This method allows for the detection of toxic compounds directly in the water column and offers numerous advantages over current monitoring techniques (e.g., shellfish or fish testing and microalgae/cyanobacteria cell detection), despite some limitations. Numerous laboratory and field studies, testing different adsorbent substrates of which Diaion® HP20 resin appears to be the most versatile substrate, have been carried out worldwide to assess the applicability of these passive monitoring devices to the detection of toxins produced by a variety of marine and freshwater microorganisms. SPATT technology has been shown to provide reliable, sensitive and time-integrated sampling of various aquatic toxins, and also has the potential to provide an early warning system for both the occurrence of toxic microalgae or cyanobacteria and bioaccumulation of toxins in foodstuffs. This review describes the wide range of lipophilic and hydrophilic toxins associated with toxin-producing harmful algal blooms (HABs) that are successfully detected by SPATT devices. Implications in terms of monitoring of emerging toxic risks and reinforcement of current risk assessment programs are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPATT technology; passive monitoring; risk assessment; harmful algal blooms; aquatic toxins; microalgae; cyanobacteria SPATT technology; passive monitoring; risk assessment; harmful algal blooms; aquatic toxins; microalgae; cyanobacteria
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Roué, M.; Darius, H.T.; Chinain, M. Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) Technology for the Monitoring of Aquatic Toxins: A Review. Toxins 2018, 10, 167.

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