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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030113

Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China

1
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Jiangsu Aomai Bio-Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211226, China
4
Sichuan Green Food Development Center, Chengdu 610041, China
5
Hubei Gosign Bio-Feed Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430040, China
6
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB1, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB1, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0–4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3–729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3–10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB1 over China’s regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB1 during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; feedstuffs; China aflatoxin B1; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; feedstuffs; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.; Su, Y.-T.; Xie, W.-M.; Zhang, N.-Y.; Dai, J.-F.; Wang, Y.; Rajput, S.A.; Qi, D.-S.; Karrow, N.A.; Sun, L.-H. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China. Toxins 2018, 10, 113.

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