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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030100

Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Regulatory Actions of Naja naja atra Venom

1
Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, China
2
Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, China
3
Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Aging and Nervous Diseases, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Translational Research and Therapy for Neuro-Psycho-Diseases, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) is composed of various proteins, peptides, and enzymes with different biological and pharmacological functions. A number of previous studies have reported that NNAV exerts potent analgesic effects on various animal models of pain. The clinical studies using whole venom or active components have confirmed that NNAV is an effective and safe medicine for treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that NNAV has anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions in vitro and in vivo. In this review article, we summarize recent studies of NNAV and its components on inflammation and immunity. The main new findings in NNAV research show that it may enhance innate and humoral immune responses while suppressing T lymphocytes-mediated cellular immunity, thus suggesting that NNAV and its active components may have therapeutic values in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: cobra venom; anti-inflammation; immune regulation; T lymphocytes; complement system; NF-κB; rheumatoid arthritis; nephritis; pneumonia; systemic lupus erythematosus; allograft rejection cobra venom; anti-inflammation; immune regulation; T lymphocytes; complement system; NF-κB; rheumatoid arthritis; nephritis; pneumonia; systemic lupus erythematosus; allograft rejection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, S.-Z.; Qin, Z.-H. Anti-Inflammatory and Immune Regulatory Actions of Naja naja atra Venom. Toxins 2018, 10, 100.

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