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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 26; doi:10.3390/toxins10010026

Co-Occurrence of Microcystins and Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Drinking Water Source and Their Removal in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant

1
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
2
Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
3
Changzhou Academy of Environmental Science, Changzhou 213022, China
4
Nanjing Municipal Design and Research Institute CO., Ltd., Nanjing 210008, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 25 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
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Abstract

The co-occurrence of cyanotoxins and taste-and-odor compounds are a growing concern for drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) suffering cyanobacteria in water resources. The dissolved and cell-bound forms of three microcystin (MC) congeners (MC-LR, MC-RR and MC-YR) and four taste-and-odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methyl isoborneol, β-cyclocitral and β-ionone) were investigated monthly from August 2011 to July 2012 in the eastern drinking water source of Lake Chaohu. The total concentrations of microcystins and taste-and-odor compounds reached 8.86 μg/L and 250.7 ng/L, respectively. The seasonal trends of microcystins were not consistent with those of the taste-and-odor compounds, which were accompanied by dominant species Microcystis and Dolichospermum. The fate of the cyanobacteria and metabolites were determined simultaneously after the processes of coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination in the associated full-scale DWTP. The dissolved fractions with elevated concentrations were detected after some steps and the breakthrough of cyanobacteria and metabolites were even observed in finished water. Chlorophyll-a limits at intake were established for the drinking water source based on our investigation of multiple metabolites, seasonal variations and their elimination rates in the DWTP. Not only microcystins but also taste-and-odor compounds should be taken into account to guide the management in source water and in DWTPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; taste-and-odor compounds; water source; drinking water treatment plant; cyanobacterial thresholds microcystins; taste-and-odor compounds; water source; drinking water treatment plant; cyanobacterial thresholds
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Shang, L.; Feng, M.; Xu, X.; Liu, F.; Ke, F.; Li, W. Co-Occurrence of Microcystins and Taste-and-Odor Compounds in Drinking Water Source and Their Removal in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant. Toxins 2018, 10, 26.

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