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Toxins 2017, 9(12), 402; doi:10.3390/toxins9120402

In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Cylindrospermopsin: A Review

Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, C/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
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Academic Editor: Vítor Vasconcelos
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: New Advances and Future Challenges)
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Abstract

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin that is gaining importance, owing to its increasing expansion worldwide and the increased frequency of its blooms. CYN mainly targets the liver, but also involves other organs. Various mechanisms have been associated with its toxicity, such as protein synthesis inhibition, oxidative stress, etc. However, its toxic effects are not yet fully elucidated and additional data for hazard characterization purposes are required. In this regard, in vitro methods can play an important role, owing to their advantages in comparison to in vivo trials. The aim of this work was to compile and evaluate the in vitro data dealing with CYN available in the scientific literature, focusing on its toxicokinetics and its main toxicity mechanisms. This analysis would be useful to identify research needs and data gaps in order to complete knowledge about the toxicity profile of CYN. For example, it has been shown that research on various aspects, such as new emerging toxicity effects, the toxicity of analogs, or the potential interaction of CYN with other cyanotoxins, among others, is still very scarce. New in vitro studies are therefore welcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; in vitro; cytotoxicity; oxidative stress; genotoxicity cylindrospermopsin; in vitro; cytotoxicity; oxidative stress; genotoxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pichardo, S.; Cameán, A.M.; Jos, A. In Vitro Toxicological Assessment of Cylindrospermopsin: A Review. Toxins 2017, 9, 402.

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