Toxins 2009, 1(2), 188-195; doi:10.3390/toxins1020188
Communication

Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice

1 Biotechnology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, GPO, P.O. Box 12301, 50774 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan # These authors contributed equally to this study.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2009; in revised form: 19 November 2009 / Accepted: 8 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mycotoxin Research)
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Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination in rice is less reported, compared to that in wheat or maize, however, some Fusarium fungi occasionally infect rice in the paddy field. Fumonisins are mycotoxins mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which often ruins maize. Rice adherent fungus Gibberella fujikuroi is taxonomically near to F. verticillioides, and there are sporadic reports of fumonisin contamination in rice from Asia, Europe and the United States. Therefore, there exists the potential risk of fumonisin contamination in rice as well as the need for the validated analytical method for fumonisins in rice. Although both natural and spiked reference materials are available for some Fusarium mycotoxins in matrices of wheat and maize, there are no reference materials for Fusarium mycotoxins in rice. In this study, we have developed a method for the preparation of a reference material containing fumonisins in Thai rice. A ShakeMaster grinding machine was used for the preparation of a mixed material of blank Thai rice and F. verticillioides-infected Thai rice. The homogeneity of the mixed material was confirmed by one-way analysis of variance, which led this material to serve as an in-house reference material. Using this reference material, several procedures to extract fumonisins from Thai rice were compared. Accordingly, we proved the applicability of an effective extraction procedure for the determination of fumonisins in Japanese rice.
Keywords: reference material; Fusarium; fumonisin; Thai-rice; HPLC-FL

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MDPI and ACS Style

Awaludin, N.; Nagata, R.; Kawasaki, T.; Kushiro, M. Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice. Toxins 2009, 1, 188-195.

AMA Style

Awaludin N, Nagata R, Kawasaki T, Kushiro M. Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice. Toxins. 2009; 1(2):188-195.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Awaludin, Norhafniza; Nagata, Reiko; Kawasaki, Tomomi; Kushiro, Masayo. 2009. "Preparation of an In-House Reference Material Containing Fumonisins in Thai Rice and Matrix Extension of the Analytical Method for Japanese Rice." Toxins 1, no. 2: 188-195.

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