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A Novel Platform for Research on Toxins
Toxins 2009, 1(1), 3-13; doi:10.3390/toxins1010003
Article

Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production

,
 and *
Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2009 / Revised: 14 July 2009 / Accepted: 21 July 2009 / Published: 23 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract

In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; Penicillium; Azadirachta indica; biological control ochratoxin A; Penicillium; Azadirachta indica; biological control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Mossini, S.A.G.; Arrotéia, C.C.; Kemmelmeier, C. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production. Toxins 2009, 1, 3-13.

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