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A Novel Platform for Research on Toxins
Toxins 2009, 1(1), 3-13; doi:10.3390/toxins1010003
Article

Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production

,
 and
*
Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2009 / Revised: 14 July 2009 / Accepted: 21 July 2009 / Published: 23 July 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Abstract

In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; Penicillium; Azadirachta indica; biological control ochratoxin A; Penicillium; Azadirachta indica; biological control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Mossini, S.A.G.; Arrotéia, C.C.; Kemmelmeier, C. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract and Neem Oil on Penicillium Growth, Sporulation, Morphology and Ochratoxin A Production. Toxins 2009, 1, 3-13.

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